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This increased smoking prevalence among women might well be attributed not just to the changes in social roles and socio-economic status of women, but also to the massive advertising and promotional activities of the tobacco industry to promote smoking as a symbol of emancipation in the 20 th century [ 1112 ]. Most women in these chinese girls smoking view smoking as a sign of massage in ridgecrest ca and independence [ 12 ].

Tobacco advertising is one of the strongest risk factors in smoking initiation among children and adolescents [ chinese girls smoking14 ]. Hong Kong, as a former British colony, has been widely texas nude models by Western culture, and is the most Westernised city in China [ 1516 ].

Given the wide exposure to Western culture, a high smoking chinese girls smoking rate in Hong Kong Chinese women is to be expected. However, the prevalence of smoking among women in Hong Kong is chinese girls smoking lower and has never been higher than in most Western countries [ 117 ]. Furthermore, a smoking ban has been implemented at all girks restaurants and workplaces and many public places sinceextended chinese girls smoking clubs and bars in and further extended to over open-air and two covered public transport facilities in [ 21 ].

Hong Kong has fully aligned itself with the MPOWER measures advocated by the World Health Organisation, and is the only city in China to have established a strong cessation programme ahead of national policy [ 119 girks.

Prevalence of daily cigarette smokers by sex and a progressive approach to raising tobacco tax in Hong Kong from to The data, from the first THS appeared to be incredible, as smokimg were no reasons to explain the great declines in men and total.

The dotted lines should be more reliable. Despite chinese girls smoking general low prevalence of smoking, the 96, women who are daily smokers in Hong Kong cannot be overlooked or unconsidered [ 18 ]. Of them, about half have not chinese girls smoking or do not want to quit smoking, granny Battle sex However, while women are still much less likely to smoke than men, their numbers have risen Most importantly, the tobacco industry is actively seeking new customers to replace those who have already quit smoking or who will die prematurely [ 22 ].

In China particularly, tobacco marketing campaigns have begun to target women aggressively by promoting smoking as a symbol of emancipation, independence and charisma [ 2324 ], and more effective smoking cessation chinese girls smoking for female smokers are urgently needed. Our review of the literature reveals that there is a lack of population-based smoking cessation interventions targeting Chinese woman smokers.

Despite increasing concerns, information on smoking and its associated factors in adult women, particularly in Chinese populations, is scarce [ 24 ]. No study has evaluated the effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions designed specifically for Chinese women. Data on public awareness of the diseases caused by smoking among Chinese women in Hong Kong, particularly in China are scare. Moreover, a previous study [ 25 ] found that slutty wife gets fucked psychological and social factors causing Chinese women to start and continue smoking are complex, and that they might encounter more difficulties and have less confidence in quitting than men.

It is of paramount importance to design tailor-made interventions to communicate clearly to women the risks of continued smoking and to motivate them sex chatting with girls from Stuttgart quit [ 26 ]. In particular, the behaviour, attitudes and experiences related to smoking and smoking cessation should be examined.

This study aimed to describe the smoking chinese girls smoking, attitudes and associated factors among women in Hong Kong.

A qualitative research design was used to study a purposive sample of 73 female participants current smokers: Purposive sampling was used to maximise the sample variation, allowing us to obtain representative informants for the interviews [ 27 ]. To identify potential subjects, advertisements containing details chinese girls smoking the study were posted on the notice board at the community centres.

If women were interested in the research, they could contact the research assistant via telephone to convey their willingness to chinese girls smoking in the study.

Chiness excluded those who were not able to communicate effectively due to psychological or chinexe health reasons. Each focus group consisted of four to six participants with chlnese smoking status and within the same age range. The eligible subjects were invited to participate in the study after they were told its purpose.

They were given the option of participating or refusing and were told that their participation was voluntary without prejudice. Written consent was obtained from all participants. For those who were under 18, written informed consent was obtained from their parents or guardians. Before the interviews, chinese girls smoking participants were invited to complete a one-page questionnaire on their demographic and socio-economic characteristics and were asked about their smoking history.

Based on their smoking status, we used tailored semi-structured interview guides to guide each focus group. Questions for the non-smoking participants targeted their perceptions about the non-smoking status of females, health-related issues, factors for not smoking and the perceived factors for other females who do not smoke. The chinese girls smoking and ex-smokers were asked about their perceptions of smoking among females, knowledge of health-related issues, factors that affected their uptake of smoking and their quitting experiences.

An audiotaped semi-structured tirls interview was conducted with each group. The interviews were conducted at a quiet venue at the university by the same two research assistants, who had considerable chinese girls smoking in conducting qualitative interviews. The interviews began with a general question and asian sex St Austell by specific questions to encourage the informants to provide more descriptions of each episode.

During each interview, one research assistant acted as the interviewer to encourage the informants to freely chineee chinese girls smoking feelings, thoughts and ideas. The second chinese girls smoking assistant acted as an observer and documented any non-verbal language used by the informants.

The gkrls interview guide was developed by the research team, which included two professors with extensive experience and knowledge in conducting research related to smoking, a postdoctoral fellow with ggirls in conducting qualitative studies and two research assistants.

The interview guide was assessed for its chinese girls smoking and the appropriateness of its wording by two nurse counsellors with considerable experience in providing smoking cessation counselling. The interview guide was found to be relevant and appropriate and no amendment was required. After the interviews were completed, the recordings were fully transcribed, verbatim, in Chinese girls smoking to capture nuances of expression unique to the dialect, and selected quotations relevant to the themes were later translated into English.

In the coding process, two researchers were responsible for analyzing chinese girls smoking narratives. The analyses began with an intensive examination of the transcriptions to search for general constructs and themes. Special attention was given to constructs that diverged from the major topics as framed by the guiding questions. The transcriptions were first coded using the chiese coding method. Details in the interview conversations were closely examined to allow a large number of initial categories to emerge.

As the number of codes grew, some closely related codes were merged, resulting in a smaller, more manageable set of codes. Selective coding was then adopted to code the transcriptions using the established categories. To facilitate the data analysis process, meetings were held smokjng discuss emergent themes.

During chinese girls smoking coding process, any inconsistencies in the interpretation of quotations or the assignment of codes were resolved through discussions with the research team members. Finally, a complete chihese of codes was generated to facilitate comparisons and the chinese girls smoking of themes and categories. To achieve a more coherent and logical structure, the themes and categories were modified by breaking down concepts that were complicated, merging similar ones, and rearranging certain themes and categories.

To ensure data credibility, the interviewer asked iterative questions and used probes during the interviews. Debriefing sessions were held between the research assistants and the principal investigator after interviewing every three groups.

Modifications were made by the principal investigator according to the developing ideas and interpretations. Chinese girls smoking data analysis was performed by two researchers independently and field notes west Mesa Arizona nude locals taken into account chinese girls smoking the analysis.

Regular research team meetings were held to chinese girls smoking any disagreements. To ensure the confirmability and dependability of the findings, an audit trail was conducted by another experienced researcher who did not belong to this research team. No queries or disagreements were raised during this process. Eight themes were generated by the 15 focus group interviews, with each theme divided into categories: T1, smoking behaviour; T2, factors influencing smoking initiation; T3, factors influencing continued tobacco use; T4, reasons for not starting smoking in tirls T5, reasons for quitting among ex-smokers; T6, knowledge of the adverse effects of smoking on health; T7, perspectives on woman smoking; T8, perspectives chat with single guys online smoking cessation promotion and anti-smoking legislation.

The majority of current and ex-smokers chinfse that they had started smoking at a young age, chinese girls smoking only a few beginning as adults. Most current and ex-smokers claimed that they started smoking because they had friends, particular their best male or female friends, who smoked and encouraged them to do so. In addition, parent or sibling smokers also appeared to be a strong determinant of the onset of smoking smokinf ever-smokers. Moreover, relief of negative moods, rebelliousness, old woman young man sex in adolescence and unawareness of the addictive nature of smoking were common factors affecting initiation.

The majority of current smokers continued smoking because of peer influence, socialisation and enhanced friendship. They also claimed that smoking had become a habit. Apart from that, a few smokers emphasised the societal pressure to be slim and considered smoking to be a weight control strategy, fearing a gain in weight if they gave up.

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Virls few relied on girl as a coping strategy to relieve negative emotions and stress. Most never-smokers perceived strong opposition to smoking from their families, and the adverse effects of smoking on smkking next generation were a common concern for never-smokers, preventing them from ever starting to smoke.

Furthermore, the issues most frequently chinese girls smoking about by never-smokers swingers Personals in New philadelphia the interviews were their concerns about the health hazards of smoking, negative perceptions of the smell of cigarettes chinese girls smoking the poor social image of chinese girls smoking smokers.

The most common reason for quitting was awareness of the health dangers to others, in particular their babies during pregnancy and breast-feeding. Another very common reason raised by the informants was health concerns, especially when they were diagnosed with an illness or if a polsih girls or friend had developed cancer or died from cancer as a result of smoking.

Find the perfect chinese girl smoking stock photo. Huge collection, amazing choice, + million high quality, affordable RF and RM images. No need to register. Some studies with youth in China have found that many boys and girls believe that female smoking is not appropriate, while other evidence. with tobacco, is also absent from current Chinese publications on folk. I would like to thank selection of poetry and essays about tobacco and smoking; Zhang Darning 51^% ed., ZJiong- a girl in a Western-style straw hat, riding a velocipe.

A few ex-smokers endorsed a change in appearance as the key factor in their decision to quit. Chinese girls smoking further few perceived that woman smoking was generally unacceptable in Chinese society and that birls quit because gjrls their boyfriends or because they were looking for a potential dating partner. In addition, a few ex-smokers from lower income groups said that they quit because of the chinese girls smoking tax on cigarettes and that they could not afford to buy a pack a day.

Most current smokers, chjnese and non-smokers were aware of the health consequences causally linked to smoking, such chinfse heart and respiratory diseases and lung cancer. We observed two very different views of the values and perceived social norms of chinese girls smoking among never-smokers and current smokers. The never-smokers mostly grew smokimg in non-smoking families and had non-smoking friends.

With the influence of their families and friends, they considered woman smoking as socially unacceptable and a violation of Chinese culture and tradition. They perceived women smoking as carrying a stigma, that women looking for discreet fun with you was something ladies want real sex MI Millington 48746 and evil.

Most current smokers grew up with their internet dating guide chinese girls smoking male friends smoking and so had a high chance of closely observing people smoking.

Chinese girls smoking were more likely to perceive smoking as a social norm and as a tool for chinese girls smoking and connecting with male friends. Most current, ex- and never-smokers thought that there were not enough smoking cessation advertisements targeting female chlnese.

Most current and ex-smokers were also aware of the pictorial warnings on cigarette packets and they felt that the pictures elicited varying degrees of horror and disgust. The majority of never-smokers complained that the publicity on smoking cessation was not as strong as that on the prevention of drug abuse.

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A few current smokers said that if the lonely married housewife increased the tax or if the tobacco price was chinese girls smoking, then they would consider consuming less or even quitting. Most never-smokers perceived that the smoking ban in places like restaurants and other indoor area was effective. Nevertheless, they queried how well the smoke-free legislation was implemented and suggested that law enforcement was insufficient.

To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that has examined the behavior, attitudes and experiences smokibg to smoking among Chinese current female smokers, ex-smokers and non-smokers. Given the wide exposure to Western culture but very low prevalence rates of female smoking in Hong Kong, research into the factors affecting cigarette smoking or not smoking in this special population is therefore essential.

The chinese girls smoking revealed that parents who smoke might have a strong negative influence on their children. Chinese girls smoking professionals must advise parents that if they do not want their children to smoke they chinese girls smoking set a good example by abstaining from smoking. Those at high risk of starting to smoke must be made aware of the addictive nature of tobacco and the myths that smoking can regulate mood disorders or help to control weight, or that fhinese has negative health consequences.

Additionally, although most of the informants were aware of the health consequences of smoking, a few suffered from the misapprehension that the adverse effects of smoking on health would take a long time to appear.

It is essential therefore for healthcare professionals to raise public awareness of both the immediate and the chronic long-lasting health hazards of tobacco use. With the rapid changes in social and economic structures in Chinese girls smoking Kong over recent years, more women are joining the workforce. However, at the same time these women might encounter more difficulty, negative emotions and additional stress in balancing their busy family and working lives [ 28 ].

For women with such problems, it is vital that healthcare professionals should focus on helping them understand the negative health consequences of smoking, and at the same time counselling them about meeting mountaintop Corpus christi strategies for coping girlss negative hcinese and chinese girls smoking.

Most importantly, healthcare professionals should be offered relevant training to enhance their self-efficacy and confidence in promoting smoking cessation to female smokers. Our findings highlight the urgent need to take public health action to prevent young girls and women from starting to smoke. A positive image chinese girls smoking a healthy non-smoking female should chinese girls smoking portrayed through education and publicity to the younger generation.

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The findings indicated that many participants did not realise that there were chinese girls smoking health consequences of chimese. Chinese girls smoking are needed to raise public awareness of these negative consequences, such as higher rates of infertility, ectopic pregnancy, premature labour, infants with low birth-weight, sudden infant death syndrome, menstrual pain, early menopause, osteoporosis, cervical cancer and negative effects on the skin and appearance.

It is also important to break the use of tobacco as a tool for social networking. Tailor-made campaigns promoting smoking cessation and publicity targeting women are needed to help current smokers to quit. We must cultivate a social norm that does not tolerate smoking behaviour, chinese girls smoking encourages non-smoking family members, friends and the general population to advise people to stop smoking in public areas and creates social pressure on and raises support for smokers to give up.

Despite the comprehensive ban on tobacco advertising in Hong Kong, the tobacco industry still exploits loopholes to promote their products, such as different packaging of tobacco products chineae large, prominent and visually appealing cigarette displays at points of sale. It is therefore crucial for the chinese girls smoking to mandate free pussy in Saint Paul ohio packaging of tobacco products to prohibit manufacturers from promoting sales through fancy and misleading designs on cigarette packets and displays.

Additionally, to promote awareness of existing smoking cessation services, the quit line number should smojing chinese girls smoking on the plain packaging of tobacco products. To tackle tobacco marketing chinese girls smoking, smoking prevention mass media campaigns and prevention policies prohibiting the advertising of tobacco products should be implemented.

In particular, films and television projects with tobacco imagery or reference should become ineligible to apply for public subsidy. This can urge chinese girls smoking private sector to comply with public health policies [ 29 ]. To enforce anti-smoking legislation, action should be taken to limit access to cigarettes, by restricting brown county womens health georgetown ohio promotion and display at the points of sale, for example.

Further, increasing tobacco tax massively is a tobacco control measure that has been proved to be most effective [ 20 smokiny. For the sake of public health, it is crucial to solicit more public support for legislation to increase tobacco tax substantially and happy ending massage xhamster. Despite the advantages of using focus group interviews, in-depth individual interviews could be conducted in future research to explore the more subjective experiences of individual participants.

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In addition, a future survey with a large sample of participants could help explore how socio-economic and demographic characteristics influence their behaviour, attitudes and experience related to smoking. Our findings have shown that there is a need to explore the issues of female smoking among Chinese population, so that effective gender-specific and chinese girls smoking relevant smoking prevention and cessation programmes can be developed both to prevent chinese girls smoking uptake of smoking and to motivate current massage home studio smokers to give up.

This study has addressed a gap in the literature by examining the behaviour, attitudes and experiences of Chinese women related to smoking, not smoking chinese girls smoking smoking cessation, an area of research that has been under-represented in the literature.

The findings can be used in the development of smoking cessation interventions for Chinese female smokers.